Sussex County experienced a significant demographic shift from 1990-2000, driven primarily by a surge in its Hispanic population. This transformation came as a surprise to a community more familiar with people leaving than new cultures arriving. While seasonal workers have been part of the county’s fabric, the new wave of mostly male Hispanic workers differed, as they were highly visible and usually resided near poultry processing plants. Communities such as Selbyville, Georgetown, and Milford saw particularly notable increases, eliciting mixed responses from long-time residents.
Georgetown served as the epicenter of this change, by 2000 accounting for 32% of the town’s residents. Data indicates that as the Hispanic population rose, non-Hispanic residents moved out. Across Sussex County, varying degrees of concentration exist, with sub-groups often clustering together based on their place of origin, such as Guatemalans in Georgetown.
Contrary to common stereotypes, the Hispanic immigrants include both rural and urban populations with diverse educational backgrounds. Urban immigrants often adapt more quickly and regain their social standing, while working-class immigrants usually stay within ethnic enclaves.
Economic Ties to Homeland
The immigrants maintain strong connections with their home countries, often sending remittances that contribute significantly to the economies there. Employment opportunities in low-skilled jobs, particularly in poultry processing plants, are the main attraction to Sussex County. Companies have adapted by offering language training and even promoting skilled Hispanic workers.
Misconceptions about legal status abound, but most immigrants in Sussex County have legal documentation. U.S. immigration laws and policies, including the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 and the 1996 Illegal Immigration and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), have had a complex impact on the immigrant population. While IRCA helped legalize many, it didn’t significantly curb illegal immigration, and IIRIRA has led to increased criminalization of undocumented immigrants. Overall, the immigration wave illustrates the intricate interplay of laws, societal needs, and opportunities affecting immigrants and their descendants in the United States.
The United States has grappled with complex challenges in both immigration and refugee policy. The Refugee Act of 1980 provided a more organized framework, permitting an annual entry of 50,000 refugees and offering a pathway for 5,000 to apply for asylum. However, Cold War politics created inconsistencies in U.S. treatment of Central American refugees, favoring those fleeing socialist regimes while often denying asylum to those escaping right-wing dictatorships.
Violence and civil wars in countries like El Salvador and Guatemala led to mass displacements, further complicated by U.S. foreign policy that at times enabled crises. Activists and legal advocates responded by suing the Immigration and Naturalization Service, leading to a 1990 settlement granting temporary protective status but not amnesty to refugees. Subsequent legislation presented a bifurcated path to permanent residency, with some laws favoring Nicaraguans and Cubans over Salvadorans and Guatemalans, though changes in the late 1990s began to level the playing field.
Contrary to common beliefs, women have been the majority of U.S. immigrants in the 20th century, often migrating for employment rather than family reunification. Migration choices tend to be influenced more by individual needs than by traditional family roles.
Sussex County, a focal point for late 20th century immigration, confronts challenges such as housing shortages, language barriers, and issues surrounding legal status. The largest employers, poultry plants, don’t offer housing, exacerbating the already limited housing options. Language issues make immigrants vulnerable to exploitation, though some measures like increased police patrols and bilingual officers aim to improve safety.
Dueling Perspectives on Undocumented Immigrants
Regarding undocumented immigrants, two predominant viewpoints exist. One advocates for stricter border controls and criminalization of undocumented workers, a strategy criticized for its ineffectiveness and high costs. The other promotes normalization of immigrant status, in line with democratic ideals, although this approach requires intricate coordination. Overall, the evolving landscape of U.S. immigration and refugee policy underscores the nation’s ongoing struggle to balance humanitarian concerns with domestic challenges.